Both in vitro and preclinical studies of the sub-fraction have shown its effectiveness in inhibiting over 21 human cancer cell lines, including melanoma, breast cancer, colon cancer and glioma. Significantly extended survival and tumor growth inhibition have been seen across the cancer cell lines tested, with a 70-90% reduction in tumor load seen in subcutaneous mouse xenograft experiments (p<0.02).
In 2014, Histogen and its partner formed Adaptive Biologix, LLC (formerly Histogen Oncology LLC), a joint venture focused on development of the sub-fraction for the treatment of cancer. Adaptive Biologix holds an exclusive license to Histogen’s materials for oncology applications throughout North America.
Mechanism of Action
The low molecular weight sub-fraction has been shown to induce apoptosis, or controlled cell death, in human cancer cells. Studies have shown the inhibitory effect of the material to be selective for malignant cells, supporting proliferation of human dermal fibroblasts, embryonic stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells, while inhibiting tumor growth and cancer cell proliferation. Further investigation of the mechanism responsible for cancer cell inhibition points to the upregulation of Caspase 9, which causes cancer cells and cancer stem cells to enter apoptosis.